GEB 3214/4930
Writing and Speaking in Business
Online Summer 2007


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GEB3213/4930 Syllabus
Summer 2007

GEB3213/4930 Assignments
Summer 2007

GEB3213/4930 Deadlines
Summer 2007

GEB3213/4930 Schedule
Summer 2007

GEB3213/4930 Gradebook
Summer 2007

Vista WebCT


Course Texts
Business and Administrative Communication. 7th edition. Kitty O. Locker, McGraw-Hill, 2005, combined with Jane Douglas, Business Writing CPR: 16 Principles for Writing Virtually Anything Effectively.

Course Schedule and Assignments
Unless prefaced with CPR, course reading assignments refer to Business and Administrative Communication.

All lectures are viewed on WebCT Vista.
All discussion boards are on WebCT Vista.
Most activities are also posted on WebCT Vista.

Please note: Quizzes open the first day of the week adn close the final day of the week.

Please note: Activities are not submitted to the instructor.

Week 1: 14 – 20 May
LECTURE 1.1 – Written Communication: Introduction to Business Writing: Communication Matters.
LECTURE 1.2 — Written Communication: Communication and Career Development
LECTURE 1.3 - Oral Communication: Advantages of Good Presentation Skills
ACTIVITIES - Read through course introductory material syllabus, assignments, schedule, VISTA setup.
HW – Write diagnostic memo - due Sunday by midnight as an email attachment to
HW – Take writing Pre-Test in WebCT.
READING –Read Chapter 1: Business Communication, Management, and Success (pp. 3-28); Chapter 3: Adapting Your Message to Your Audience (pp. 58-80).

Week 2: 21 - 27 May
LECTURE 2.1 – Written Communication: Writing for Purpose and Audience
LECTURE 2.2 – Written Communication: Reader-Centered Writing
LECTURE 2.3 – Written Communication: Focusing Your Resume
LECTURE 2.4 – Oral Communication: Common Presentation Situations and Issues
READING — Read Chapter 17: Résumés (pp. 490-520), and Appendix C: Making and Communicating Meaning (pp. 615-627).
ACTIVITY - Determine the most effective response in Exercise 1.2 (pp. 30-1)
ACTIVITY – Achieving action-oriented business writing. Exercises 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 (pp. 80-81) and 4.9 (p. 111)
HW – Quiz 1 due in WebCT
HW - Assignment 1: Draft a resume that targets a specific job (include the job description or ad in your submission).
DISCUSSION BOARD 1 — Goodbye Cubicle; Hello Wide Open Office - due by 28 May
Advances in technology are leading offices to adopt open floor plans to replace the traditional cubicle.

According to Bob Porter of Vocon, a commercial design and architecture firm in Cleveland, wireless technology is driving the change.
"This new generation of workers has grown up totally on computers, so workers are much more mobile. Therefore, workspaces become more fluid, dynamic and flexible," Porter says. This translates to the open office, which typically features lower-paneled workstations and larger common areas to replace private offices and corridors.

The average space per employee has shrunk 20 percent in the last five years as the price for office space has risen. Companies focused on bottom line performance consequently need to maximize office space—hence, the open office.

Whatever the configuration, office design affects workplace behavior. "People are trying to move as far away from the rigidity and isolation that goes along with individual offices to gain a higher degree of collaboration and flexibility for both work and space purposes," says architect Marc Margulies. "This more flexible concept really meets those needs."

Source: Diana Mirel, “Wide Open Spaces: Cubicle-Ridden Offices Transition to More Open-Office Formats,” Journal of Property Management, May-June 2006, p. 30.

Discussion: How might shared spaces encourage employees to be more productive? How might shared spaces breed less productivity? Would you find working in a communal space easy or difficult? Post a response—a minimum of 100 words—to Discussion Board 1 on Vista (due by 28 May). Ensure you make your writing reader-centered, following the principles covered in Locker in this week’s reading.

Week 3: 28 May – 3 June
LECTURE 3.1 – Written Communication: Building Good-will and You-Attitude
LECTURE 3.2 – Written Communication: Writing Business Letters
LECTURE 3.2a – Written Communication: Business Memos and Letter Formats
LECTURE 3.3 - Written Communication: Producing the Cover Letter
LECTURE 3.4 – Oral Communication: R.A.I.S.E.D. Modeled
ACTIVITY – Complete Exercises 17.1.1-17.1.3, 17.2.1-17.2.10, 17.3, 17.4
READING - Read Chapter 2: Building Goodwill (pp. 34-52) and Chapter 18: Job Application Letters (pp. 524-543).
HW – Quiz 2
HW – Assignment 1: Finalize resumes. Due Date: 6 June.
HW – Assignment 1.2: Draft a cover letter to accompany your resume, targeting the same position.
DISCUSSION BOARD 2— Interview Attire Still Starched and Formal - due June 4th
Students interviewing for their first job should don traditional business attire and iron their shirts if they want to make a good impression, according to a 2006 survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers.

The survey, Job Outlook 2006, found that 73 percent of employers were strongly influenced by an interviewee’s personal grooming. "These results are consistent with what we've seen in the past," says Marilyn Mackes, executive director of the National Association of Colleges and Employers, the nonprofit organization that conducts the Job Outlook survey. "Job candidates need to remember that their overall grooming and choice of interview attire project an image; they are marketing themselves to the employer as a potential employee, and part of marketing is the packaging."

The survey also found that employers pay more attention to a future employee’s handshake than to odd hair color, obvious tattoos, or male earrings. Facial hair—beards and moustaches—influenced employers very little.

The bottom line for student interviewees—be conservative, says Mackes.

Source: National Association of Colleges and Employers, “If You Have the Right Skills, Does It Matter If Your Tongue Is Pierced?” <> accessed 15 September 2006.

Discussion: Why is it important to dress up for an interview even if employees at a company dress more casually? What alterations to your appearance would you make for an interview? What are some other preparations you might make to impress a future employer? Post your 100-word or longer response to Discussion Board 2, no later than June 4th. Be sure to follow Locker’s advice on building good will, if applicable, in your response.

Week 4: 4 – 10 June
LECTURE 4.1 – Written Communication: Frontloading Messages
LECTURE 4.2 — Written Communication: Making Your Writing Easy to Read
LECTURE 4.4 – Oral Communication: Reason- Primary and Secondary
READING - Read Chapter 4: Making Your Writing Easy to Read (pp. 86-109), ACTIVITY – Complete Exercises 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13 (Locker, pp. 111-112)
ACTIVITY – Complete Exercises in Writing CPR, p. 14.
READING — Chapter 7: Informative and Positive Messages (pp. 150-168); and Writing CPR, Chapter 1: Call 911 (pp. 1-3) and Chapter 2: Check for Pulse: Clarity (pp. 5-14).
HW – Assignment 1.2: Finalize cover letters. Due Date: 13 June.
DISCUSSION BOARD 3 — Body Language Speaks Volumes in Interviews - due 11 June
A nice suit is certainly one part of a successful interview, but body language sends the strongest message. Shana Bruflodt, a business office manager quoted in the e-newsletter, Career News, offers these hints for job seekers:
• Maintain eye contact with the interviewer even if you are shy.
• Remember your posture! Sit up straight.
• Show your excitement and enthusiasm for the job; this includes using jargon that illustrates you understand the industry you hope to enter.
A firm handshake, combined with eye contact and good posture, can convey the non-verbal messages of confidence and energy that will help you stand out and land the job. And don’t be afraid to ask whether you are a good candidate for the position at the end of the interview. That punch line may be just the touch to create a memorable impression.
Source: Shanna Bruflodt, “Secret Tip to Great Interviews,” and Jeremy Scorcia, “Positive Body Language for Job Interview Success,” The Career News, May 29, 2006, Vol. 6 Issue 23.
Discussion: What kind of body language should you avoid during an interview? What are some other ways you can convey interest in a job for which you are interviewing? How else can you prepare for a job interview? Post your response—including your own experiences with body language during job interviews—and be sure to follow the clarity principles covered in Writing CPR in your 100-word or longer response. Responses must be posted by 11 June.

Week 5: 11 – 17 June
LECTURE 5.1 – Written Communication: Clarity in Your Writing, Part I (J)
LECTURE 5.2 – Written Communication: Clarity in Your Writing, Part II (J)
LECTURE 5.3 — Written Communication: Good News Messages (J)
LECTURE 5.4 — Oral Communication: Audience Considerations
ACTIVITY – Complete Exercises 7.1, 7.2 (pp. 172-3)
ACTIVITY — Revise your cover letter according to the Clarity principles mentioned in Writing CPR.
ACTIVITY — Complete Clarity exercises (loaded onto Vista).
READING — Read Chapter 6: Designing Documents, Slides, and Screens (pp. 127-147); Chapter 15: Read CPR: Chapter 3: Clear Airway: Continuity (pp. 15-26); Appendix A: Formats for Letters, Memos, and E-Mail Messages (pp. 572-588)
HW – Quiz 3
HW – Assignment 2: Informative/Positive memo. Complete either Exercise 7.17 or 7.19 (pp. 177-178), following guidelines for both clear writing and providing positive information. Due Date: 20 June.
DISCUSSION BOARD 4 — Know Thy Buzzwords! - due by 18 June.
Jargon has become the norm in corporate culture, and those in-phrases change every three to five years. Workers should keep current if they want to avoid being “delayered,” the latest iteration of “downsized” or “rightsized,” (i.e. fired.)

New buzzwords often accompany incoming chief executives who want to create a sense of cooperation or to appear aware of anything new. But according to USC management professor Warren Bennis, "Too often people use buzzwords to muddy or cover up what they're actually saying." Executives who wish to be clear should actually cut down their use of jargon.

Today’s crop of buzzwords convey complex ideas. “Knowledge acquisition,” which is the opposite of delayering, actually means hiring a talented individual. “Unsiloing,” created from a contortion of the noun “silo,” is used to make the point that managers should stress cooperation across departments, share resources, and cross-sell products to boost the bottom line.

One current buzzword causes CEOs to stop everything: “Sox,” also known as “S-O” or “Sarbox.” This is shorthand for the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, a corporate governance reform law enacted in 2002. When suggesting any new idea, anyone who asks whether or not the practice will pass Sox rules will frequently halt further discussion.

Source: Carol Hymowitz, “Mind Your Language: To Do Business Today, Consider Delayering,” Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2006, p. B 1.

Discussion: Why do people latch onto buzzwords? Can you think of any once-trendy phrase that has become passé? In what ways can the use of buzzwords or jargon create misunderstanding? Post your 100-word or longer response to Discussion Board 4, making sure that you observe principles for both clarity and reader-centered writing in your response. Responses must be posted by 18 June.

Week 6: 18 - 24 June
LECTURE 6.1 – Written Communication: Using Continuity in Your Writing, PART I
LECTURE 6.2 – Written Communication: Using Continuity in Your Writing, Part II
LECTURE 6.3 — Oral Communication: Investigating and Structuring the Presentation
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 (pp. 141-145)
ACTIVITY — Complete Continuity Exercises (loaded onto Vista)
READING – Read Chapter 15: Using Graphs and Other Visuals (pp. 442-459).
HW – Quiz 4
HW — Assignment 3: Improving a Financial Aid Form. Complete Exercise 6.12 (pp. 146-7). Due Date: 27 June.
DISCUSSION BOARD 5 — Rotten Writing Costly to Canadian Business - due 25 June.
A recent survey of 525 Canadian businesses concluded that poor writing wastes time, drains productivity, and causes expensive errors.

The survey, conducted by the consulting firm Communicare, found that workers spend a good part of their day with written communication. In fact, 58 percent spent between two and four hours daily reading e-mail, memos, reports, and information on the Internet. But because much of the writing is poorly constructed, workers often miss key information, which leads to expensive errors.

Another key finding in the report was that weak workplace communication is almost universally considered costly to business. A total of 85 percent of the respondents said poorly written material wasted time, and 70 percent said it caused low productivity. Nearly 75 percent reported hearing complaints about poorly written communications.

The Canadian survey corroborates an earlier investigation done by the National Commission on Writing for America's Families, Schools, and Colleges done in 2004, which found that only about one-third of employees possess the writing skills that companies value.

Source: Kathy Gurchiek, “Shoddy Writing Tips Up Employees, Firms,” HR Magazine, June 2006, Vol. 51, Issue 6.

Discussion: If business values good writing, what can employers do to improve workers’ skills? How can you improve your writing skills for the workplace? Post your 100-word or longer response to Discussion Board 5, observing principles for reader-centered writing, clarity, and continuity. Responses should be posted by 25 June.

Week 7: 25 June - 1 July
LECTURE 7.1 — Written Communication: Document Design
LECTURE 7.2 – Written Communication: Effective Use of Graphics
LECTURE 7.3 — Written Communication: The Writing Process
LECTURE 7.4 —Oral Communication: PowerPoint Commandments
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4 (pp. 460-3)
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 5.2 (but not a-c) and 5.3 (p. 125)
READING — Read Chapter 5: Planning, Composing, Revising (pp. 115-124); and Chapter 8: Negative Messages (pp. 183-202).
HW – Quiz 5
HW — Assignment 4: Negative Message. Choose from Exercises 8.6, 8.7 or 8.10. Due date: 5 July.
DISCUSSION BOARD 6 — Big Brother IS Watching! - due 2 July
Workers, beware. If you think your private life activities during work hours are going unnoticed, you’re wrong. Employers are increasingly watching your Web searches, listening to your voice mails, and monitoring your e-mails. And it’s their right to do so.

Whether or not a boss informs staff, employer snooping has hit unprecedented highs. In fact, according to a study by the American Management Association and the ePolicy Institute, 76 percent of employers watch employee Web searching. Thirty-eight percent actually hire staff to sift through e-mail.

To stay out of trouble, employees should heed these rules:
1. Know and adhere to company policies about using office time for personal activities.
2. Limit Web time. Surf sparingly, avoid personal e-mailing, and delete your Web history.
3. Treat blogs and online profiles like résumés; be discreet. And edit poor grammar!
4. Never leave disparaging voice mails about fellow employees or bosses.
5. No porn at work. Ever.

Source: Kristina Dell and Lisa Takeuchi Cullen, “Snooping Bosses,” Time, September 11, 2006, p. 62+.

Discussion: Why would a boss “waste” time monitoring employee activity? How would you handle being caught using company equipment to do personal business? Under what circumstances should an employer fire an employee for spending work time on personal business? In your 150-word or longer response, be sure to observe Locker’s principles for reader-centered writing, as well as clarity and continuity principles. Responses due by 2 July.

Week 8: 2 – 8 July

PLEASE NOTE: I am getting married on July 4th and will be on my honeymoon from July 6-13. Please be patient with receiving grades back these two weeks and please be patient with slow email response. Thanks.

LECTURE 8.1 — Written Communication: Bad News Messages
LECTURE 8.2 - Written Communication: Using the Indirect Approach
LECTURE 8.3 — Oral Communication: Examining the Presentation and Delivery
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 8.1, 8.2 (pp. 203-4)
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 9.2, 9.3, 9.4 (pp. 243-244)
READING — CPR Chapter 5: Provide Chest Compressions: Concision (pp. 39-45) and Read Chapter 9: Persuasive Messages (pp. 212-241)
HW – Quiz 6
HW — Assignment 5: Persuasive Memo. Choose one of the persuasive memo assignments from Exercises 9.21, 9.22, 9.25, or 9.26 (pp. 249-251). Due date: 11 July.
DISCUSSION BOARD 7 — Excessive E-mailing Eats Employee Effectiveness - due 9 July.
With the number of e-mails skyrocketing, workers are finding that more and more of their time goes to sifting through inbox correspondence. Managers and employees are examining ways to control the seemingly endless flow of messages.

E-mail has become indispensable in the workplace, but its widespread use causes stress when recipients feel the need to respond quickly. David Strong, editor of a technology review Web site, sums up the problem: “You have to be smart about how to use e-mail…otherwise you let it ruin your life.”
The extensive practice of “cc-ing” and 24-hour access to Internet connections are two reasons for e-mail overload, with many workers receiving upwards of 150 messages per day. Some also spend excessive amounts of time struggling to find the appropriate wording and tone when composing e-mail.
The problem has resulted in a cottage industry of consultants to help companies manage the time-consuming task of sifting through messages. One CEO found her own way of dealing with the problem; she told employees that she would collect five dollars from anyone sending an unnecessary e-mail.

Source: Lizette Alvarez, “Got 2 Extra Hours for Your E-mail?” Wall Street Journal, November 10, 2005, p. E 2.

Discussion: How do you react when you receive unnecessary e-mails? What dangers do you perceive about sending unnecessary or inappropriate e-mails? How might companies encourage sending fewer e-mails without compromising the flow of communication? Post your 100-word or longer response to Discussion Board 7, taking care to observe principles for reader-centered writing, clarity, continuity, and concision in your response. Post responses by 9 July.

Week 9: 9 - 15 July

PLEASE NOTE: I am getting married on July 4th and will be on my honeymoon from July 6-13. Please be patient with receiving grades back these two weeks and please be patient with slow email response. Thanks.

LECTURE 9.1 – Written Communication: Concision
LECTURE 9.2 — Written Communication: E-mail
LECTURE 9.3 — Oral Communication: Verbal Devices
ACTIVITY — Complete Concision exercises (loaded on Vista).
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 14.1 and 14.5 (excluding a-c) (pp. 435-7)
READING —CPR: Chapter 4: Give Artificial Respiration: Coherence (pp. 27-38) and Chapter 14: Analyzing Information and Writing Reports (pp. 390-433).
HW – Quiz 7
HW — Assignment 6a: Project Proposal Memo. Choose one of the Report Assignments from Exercises 14.6, 14.9.2, 14.9.4 or 14.9.6 (pp. 437-440). Write a Project Proposal memo, following guidelines discussed in Lecture 10.3 and in Locker (355-6). Due date: 18 July.
DISCUSSION BOARD 8 — Want to Improve Communication? Stop Talking! - due 16 July.
At work and at home, experts say that best way to improve communication is to focus on listening skills.

Most people assume that when they speak, they are being understood. But in fact, each individual brings biases and filters that can obscure the speaker’s intent. Good communication can occur only when the speaker is also an active listener.

Human development expert and author Madelyn Burley-Allen explains the three levels of listening. The lowest, level three, occurs when the listener tunes out and focuses on a rebuttal. Burley-Allen describes level two listening as hearing the speaker’s words but not the intent behind the words. Finally, level one listening is compassionate and trust building.

These five tips can help improve anyone’s listening skills:
1. Go into an encounter with the mind-set to listen to the other person.
2. Ask the other person to express his or her views while you remain quiet.
3. Paraphrase the speaker’s meaning to make sure you have correctly heard the message.
4. Invite the person to correct your interpretation.
5. Postpone giving your own position whenever possible, especially in contentious situations.

Source: Siobhan Leftwich, “Now Hear This: Want to Become a Better Communicator? Shut Up and Develop Your Listening Skills,” Black Enterprise, March 2005, p. 112.

Discussion: Discuss a situation where you have practiced “level three” listening. How might you avoid this in the future? Have you been in a workplace situation where you were misunderstood? Post your 100-word minimum response to Discussion Board 8, taking care to observe principles for reader-centered writing, as well as clarity, continuity, and concision. Responses due by 16 July.

Week 10: 16 – 22 July
LECTURE 10.1 – Written Communication: Coherence
LECTURE 10.2 — Written Communication: Project Proposals
LECTURE 10.3 — Oral Communication: Persuasive Speaking. Part I.
ACTIVITY — Complete Coherence exercises (loaded on Vista).
ACTIVITY — Complete Exercises 13.1, 13.3, 13.6 (excluding a-c) (pp. 384-5)
READING — Chapter 13: Planning, Proposing and Researching Reports (pp. 348-382)
HW – Quiz 8
HW — Assignment 6b: Business Report. Write an 8-10 pp. report on the topic you chose for Assignment 6a, following the guidelines mentioned in Lecture 11.2 and on pp. 398-434. Due date: 6 August.

Week 11: 23 – 29 July
LECTURE 11.1 — Written Communication: Persuasion
LECTURE 11.2 — Written Communication: Writing Reports
LECTURE 11.3 — Written Communication: Logic and Arguments
LECTURE 11.4 — Oral Communication: Persuasive Speaking Part II – Logical Arguments.
ACTIVITY — VIEWING - “Offensive and Assertive Communication” and “Defensive and Supportive Communication via Vista’s “Course-wide Content: Student Center under Item 6: Video Presentations. Complete Exercises in 12.2 and 12.4 (p. 339) by relating the reading and video to these problems.
READING - Chapter 12: Working and Writing in Groups (pp. 316-337) and Appendix D: Crafting Logical Arguments (pp. 632-363).
HW – Quiz 9
HW — Assignment 6b: Business Report. Write an 8-10 pp. report on the topic you chose for Assignment 6a, following the guidelines mentioned in Lecture 11.2 and on pp. 398-434. Due date: 6 August.

DISCUSSION BOARD 9 — Body Piercings Out, Traditional Dress Code In - due 30 July.
After a four-year legal battle, the U.S. Court of Appeals held that employers can set dress code standards that require an employee to remove facial piercings even if they are considered religious expression.

The case began in 2001 when Costco, the largest wholesaler in the U.S., amended its dress code policy to prohibit all facial piercings except earrings. Employee Kimberly Cloutier objected, stating that, as a member of the Church of Body Modification, her eyebrow piercing represented her religious beliefs. When she refused to cover or remove the piercing, she was fired.

The ensuing lawsuit that Cloutier brought against Costco pitted an employee’s religious expression against employers wishing to promote professional appearance. The court ultimately ruled that an employer has the right to cultivate a “neat, clean, and professional” image and that facial piercings detract from that legitimate business concern.

The case has implications beyond body piercings. Many religions require belief to be demonstrated through dress, whether it is a Sikh turban, a Muslim headscarf, or a Jewish yarmulke. By law, employers must reasonably accommodate an employee’s religious beliefs unless such expression causes the employer “undue hardship.”

With the growth of diversity in the workplace, employers will be forced to reexamine just what “undue hardship” means…or face expensive lawsuits.

Source: Alison Wellner, “Costco Piercing Case Puts New Face on Issue of Wearing Religious Garb at Work,” Workforce Management, 1 June 2005: p. 76.

Discussion: Why did the court consider a facial piercing “unprofessional?” How would you feel if someone wearing religious garb you found offensive helped you at a store? Do employers have the right to limit employees’ appearance? Post your 200-word or longer response to Discussion 9, be careful to observe in your writing all the principles covered thus far in the course, including all 4C’s. Responses must be posted no later than 30 July.

Week 12: 30 July – 3 August
LECTURE 12.1 — Written Communication: Analyzing Information and Writing Reports
LECTURE 12.2 — Written Communication: Progress Reports
LECTURE 12.3 — Oral Communication: Presenting in Teams
READING – Chapter 11: Communicating Across Cultures (pp. 292-310).
ACTIVITY – Complete Exercise 11.1.1-11.1.4 (p. 311)
HW — Assignment 6c: Project Progress Report. Complete a progress report, following guidelines discussed in Lecture 12.3 and on pp. 362-5. Due date: 30 July.

Week 13: 4 – 10 August
LECTURE 13.1 – Written Communication: Communicating across Cultures
LECTURE 13.1a – Written Communication: Cross-Cultural Communication, Part II.
LECTURE 13.2 — Written Communication: Writing and Your Career
LECTURE 13.3 — Oral Communication: Handling Questions and Answers During the Presentation
VIEWING—View the “Presentation Skills” video on Vista and analyze it following the questions in Exercise 16.1 (p. 485)
READING – Read Chapter 16: Making Successful Presentations (pp. 468-484).
ACTIVITY – Revisit writing diagnostic and evaluate.
ACTIVITY — Final reports due.
HW – Quiz 10
HW – Take writing Post-Test, available on Vista.
HW — Assignment 6d: Project PowerPoint Presentation. Design a series of PowerPoints that you would use during a 10-minute oral presentation of your report’s background, context, highlights, and recommendations. Due date: 10 August.

DISCUSSION BOARD 10 — Diversity Reaps Benefits in Workplace
As the demographic profile of America changes, diversity in the workplace can help organizations improve their bottom line.

Today’s array of customers brings unique opportunities to businesses that understand the needs of the changing marketplace. Diverse management is better able to capitalize on the opportunities those changes bring. Management that reflects its employee base has another added bonus; it has a step up in attracting, retaining, and motivating a diverse staff.

One significant way for diversity to become a reality is for organizations to have a formal commitment to meet this goal. One company in Philadelphia has done just that. ARAMARK, a provider of managed services, offers internal promotions and leadership development workshops to help employees with high potential grow into managerial positions.

Minorities still lag behind in representation on corporate boards. A study conducted by the Alliance for Board Diversity found low numbers of women and minorities in American boardrooms.
The contributions of an individual can never be legislated. Ultimately, the marketplace, competition, demography, and globalization will dictate those changes in American businesses.

Source: Cassandra Hayes, “The Business Case for Diversity,” Black Enterprise, October 2005, p. 165.

Discussion: How is diversity changing the way American firms do business? Should a company’s management reflect America’s changing demographics? How might more diverse management teams help a company better understand its customers? Post your 200-word minimum response to Discussion Board 10 by August 10th, taking care to observe all the writing principles covered throughout the course.